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Questions: Read the answers to each question that the author… Questions: Read the answers to each question that the author provided. Critique the author’s answers. What are you thoughts or opinions? Do you agree or disagree? Why or why not? Page 12, question #5: Go to the IELTS website and check whether the scope and sequence presented there maps onto the specifications of the IELTS test (academic). In what ways could the scope and sequence be different?Both the website and specifications of the IELTS test, found in Christison and Murray (2014), have the same listening section of conversations between two people, monologue in everyday context, conversation between four people in an educational or training context, and monologue on an academic subject. The website goes into much more detail on the tasks which are to be performed for this section. The specifications for the academic reading section state authentic, academic text written for non-specialists, while the website notes three long texts and reading for gist, reading for main ideas, reading for detail, skimming, understanding logical argument and recognizing writers’ opinions, attitudes and purpose. Once again, the website goes into a lot more detail on the academic reading section than does the text, including specific tasks. The academic writing in Christison and Murray (2014) and the website both include description, summary, or explanation of graphs, tables, charts, or diagrams; description of an event or of an object; description and explanation of data; description of stages in a process; and written response to a point of view, argument, or problem. The website also includes, describing how something works, writing in formal style, and accompanying tasks. The speaking section in Christison and Murray (2014) and the website both include introducing oneself, talking about a given topic, and two-way discussion, but the website goes into much more detail than the textbook. The grading performance section is stated in Christison and Murray (2014) as a flat statement of “how performance is measured in each section of the test” (pg. 6), while the website details going into more detail in the section titles “how it is marked” and the succeeding subsections. The test-taking strategies in Christison and Murray (2014) and the website both include types of multiple-choice questions, specific IELTS instruction, completing the answer booklets, and preparing for the actual test day. Once again, the website goes into more detail on each of the points, but this time the textbook had one small piece of information as they also mention taking notes during the listening section. The textbook also specifically states English structure at the word, sentence, and discourse level. The scope of both the website and the specifications of the IELTS test look very similar, with the website having a little more of an in-depth explanation and added details. I did not find any guide or outline on the sequencing for the exam. Christison and Murray (2014) state an example of a logical sequence in which an educator would introduce language description to students before having them describe a graph or diagram. As for the sequence I feel educators can take logical liberties such as the one stated in the text to help students build a solid foundation of knowledge before moving on to more complex tasks as it pertains to the scope.Page 23, question #5 (#5 does not exist in my book, so I am answering question #3 on page 23 below): What role do you think that politics plays in the development of curriculum in the context in which you work?I think politics play a prominent role in the development of curriculum in the context in which I worked, as a former high school science teacher in a private school. Politics has taken hold within the high school curriculum. There’s been a recent uptick in the removal of specific texts from school libraries. Parents, local community members, chief education officers at the provincial level, and even state legislators in the United States have taken interest in limiting student access to books within the school library and recommended readings. The concern is emphasized by the parents who suggest that sensitive topics not be taught at school, but rather taught by the parents. Commonly discussed sensitive topics include gender identity and sexuality. There are arguments that these sensitive or divisive topics are not presented at age-appropriate levels and be left to at home education. For example, Harris and Alter’s New York Times article (2022) state that in Texas, Governor Greg Abbott requested that the state’s education agency “investigate any criminal activity in our public schools involving the availability of pornography.” This refers to any book containing a passage with sexual context – even though the book may not be related or pertaining directly to or focused on sexual context. The governor has gone as far as request that criminal charges be placed against librarians or educators providing these books to children. Given the political pressures to the extreme with threat of criminal activity for providing literature, the curriculum is altered as to shelter the students from these sensitive topics.Page 34, question #4: How can curriculum developers decide which variety of English to use in instruction and assessment?There are a variety of factor which impact the process in which curriculum developers decide which variety of English to use in instruction and assessment. As Christison and Murray (2014) state, English is an evolving language depending on the location where it is used and the people using it. Historically, change in English has been directed related to its use by people of diverse lingua-cultural backgrounds (Christison & Murray, 2014). Choosing which variety of English to use in instruction and assessment, depends on their own unique situations and conditions under which English will be taught as well as how the learner will utilize the language in future endeavors (Christison & Murray, 2014). Furthermore, curriculum developers must take both the nature of the learner and how the language will be used into consideration when designing curriculums (Christison & Murray, 2014). In addition to this, socioeconomic status, the gender the learner identifies with, and the ethnic background shall also be examined to design the curriculum with the most appropriate variety of English (Christison & Murray, 2014). In conclusion curriculum developers must examine the learners’ characteristics, demographics, how they are going to use the language, who they are going to use it with, and the possibility of preparing the learners for future global interactions when choosing a pertinent variety of English to use in instruction and assessment.Page 34, question # 5: How important is it for learners to understand speakers of many different varieties of English? Why?I believe it is very important to understand speakers of many different varieties of English. The reason I believe in the importance of the different varieties of English is because the world is becoming more globalized every day and the advancement of technology is only speeding up this process. Knowing this, standardized English will not be the only or most common dialect that worldly people will come in contact to, so knowing various dialects of English will give individuals an advantage. Christison and Murray (2014) point out how standard English, whether it is British or American, cannot still be considered the best fitting language for all. Therefore, just like learning a new language is beneficial for an individual, so is being able to understand the different varieties of English.Pages 47-48, questions #1 and #3 (the following are from p. 46 in my edition of the book)1. Explain the difference between using technology as a tool and as a tutor. Provide examples.There is a difference between using technology as a tool and as a tutor. When you use technology as a tool, the technology is helping to support the education provided by the educator (Christison & Murray, 2014). For example, a teacher may create PowerPoint presentations with embedded pictures and videos to help enhance lessons and generate engaging lessons for the students, helping to reinforce pertinent topics. When you use technology as a tutor, the technology is a momentary substitute for the teacher and takes over the role of educating the student. An example of technology as a tutor is the Duolingo app. If you use this program to learn a new language, then a teacher is obsolete because the program is designed to help you learn the language of your choice by solely using the program. The program itself provides lessons, help you set up goals, and utilizes listen, oral, multiple choice, and writing exercises to help you learn a language.3. How could you use social media to develop communities of practice in your classroom setting?Social media can be used to develop communities of practice in your classroom setting in a variety of ways. One way could be to have students that are working on a project together create groups on social media platforms such as Facebook. They then would be able to invite other individuals in the group that can help them with the project or problem. For example, when there is a group that wants fight against social injustice creating an online group as well as creating a hashtag and tagging others on social media is the best way to gather information from people working towards the same cause. It would also be important for me, as the teacher, to make sure the students know how to utilize social media safely and effectively, I would then assign work through social media sites and communicate with my students on the site because in doing so I am creating individuals that will now have the skills to help them function as global citizens. I would also encourage my students to use social media to connect with individuals that are experts in their field to gain pertinent information. Arts & Humanities English READ 399

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